Herbaceous

DogbaneDogbane (Apocynum cannabinum)

Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum), or Indian Hemp, is widespread, native, and valuable to pollinators. 

The "hemp" part of this common name refers to its usefulness in creating fiber (e.g., rope), not to any psychoactive qualities. This is an important distinction, as all parts of the plant are poisonous to humans, pets, and livestock. 

However, it is not poisonous to the species that require it as a host plant, such as Delicate Cycnia Moth, Dogbane Beetle, and Dogbane Saucrobotys Moth. The genus itself, Apocynum, means "poisonous to dogs." 

This plant can grow up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) tall. The stems are reddish and contain a milky latex capable of causing skin blisters. The leaves are opposite, simple broad lanceolate, entire, and smooth on top with white hairs on the underside. 

It flowers from July to August, has large sepals, and a five-lobed white corolla. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by moths and butterflies

Dogbane grows in open wooded areas, ditches, and hillsides. It is found in gravelly or sandy soil, mainly near streams in shady or moist places. 

It has also been used medicinally and is used to treat fever and dysentery. Although the toxins from the plant can cause nausea and catharsis, it has also been used for slowing the pulse, and it is also a sedative. 

This plant was much employed by various Native American tribes who used it to treat a wide variety of complaints including rheumatism, coughs, pox, whooping cough, asthma, internal parasites, and diarrhea.